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Types of research methods

7 min read

 Types of research methods

 

There are many different treatises on the types of research. The controversies to accept the different typologies suggest confusing situations in styles, forms,write essays for me, approaches, and modalities. Strictly speaking, and from a semantic point of view, types are defined systems to obtain knowledge. A synthesis of the types shown by different authors on the subject is presented.

 

Research Methods

Research Method is the rigorous procedure, formulated logically, that the researcher must follow in the acquisition of knowledge. "The method is the set of processes that man must undertake in the investigation and demonstration of the truth."  The method refers to the procedures that can be followed to prove the hypothesis, meet the objectives or give a specific answer to the problem that you identified, start by defining the starting point, what will be observed in the first instance. If you start from specific situations and expect to find information about them to analyze them with a general theoretical framework, you will refer to induction. The method that you expect to follow in the investigation should always be referred to as the problem posed.

 

The scientific method

It is the procedure or set of procedures used to obtain scientific knowledge, the work model or general guideline that guides the write my research paper writing.

The method for obtaining the so-called scientific knowledge is a rigorous procedure, of a logical order, whose purpose is to demonstrate the true value of certain statements. The word method comes from the roots: meth, which means goal, and ears, which means path. Therefore, the method is the way to reach the goal. Method and methodology are two different concepts. The method is the procedure to achieve the objectives. The methodology is the study of the method.

 

The observation

It is an important procedure in scientific research, it can be understood as “the process by which certain features existing, in reality, are deliberately perceived through a prior conceptual scheme and based on certain purposes generally defined by a conjecture that one wants to investigate”. The observation involves special conditions:

  • It should serve to achieve the results of the objectives set in the investigation.

  • It must be planned regularly. The researcher must define what he wants to observe and what are his possible results.

  • It must be systematically controlled by the researcher and be related to theoretical propositions referring to the object of investigation. Therefore, the observer must know in depth the theoretical framework on which he bases his research.

 

Some knowledge methods

The breadth of criteria in the ways of research has produced different methods to obtain knowledge. Some of the most usual are:

  • Induction-deduction.

  • Analysis-synthesis.

  • Experiment.

  • Explanation.

  • Axioms

  • Structure.

  • Dialectics.

  • Math.

  • Mechanism

  • Functionalism

  • Historical materialism

  • Systems

 

Induction-deduction

Induction consists in going from particular cases to generalization; It is initiated by the observation of particular phenomena to reach conclusions and general premises. The deduction, in going from the general to the particular; begins with the observation of general phenomena to point out the particular truths. The deductive process is not enough by itself to explain knowledge.

 

Analysis and synthesis

Analysis and synthesis are processes that allow the researcher to know the reality. The analysis handles judgments, it is a process of knowledge that is initiated by the identification of each of the parts that characterize a reality, you can establish the cause-effect relationship between the elements that make up the object of investigation. The synthesis considers the objects as a whole, the interrelation of the elements that identify the object. The method that uses analysis and synthesis consists in separating the object of study into two parts and, once its essence is understood, build a whole. Analysis and synthesis are two processes that complement each other.

 

Experimentation

The experimental method has been one of the most successful. Applies the observation of phenomena, which at first is sensory. With the abstract thought, the hypotheses are elaborated and the experiment is designed, to reproduce the object of study, controlling the phenomenon to prove the validity of the hypotheses.

 

Classification of research methods

Some authors, when referring to the methods speak of schemes or levels of research, according to their explanatory capacity and the sophistication or rigor of their procedures. They agree to order them in three stages. Adding a 4th category (comparative causal research) as described by more recent authors.

 

Level I: Exploratory studies

At this level, “an advance in the knowledge of a phenomenon is sought, often with the purpose of better specifying a research problem or to be able to explain other hypotheses”. Consequently, this research scheme should be flexible to allow the reconsideration of different aspects of the phenomenon, as progress is made. “In practice, the most difficult part of an investigation is an initiation; the most careful procedures during the last phases of an investigation are of little value if it has been based on an incorrect or inappropriate principle. ” 

For these reasons, exploratory studies are highly recommended for novice researchers and undergraduate students. Its methodology includes two types of actions:

  • Study of the documentation;

  • Direct contacts

 

The first one refers to the reconstruction of the work done by others: a review of files, reports, studies and all kinds of documents or publications. Direct contacts with the problem to be studied can be made later or simultaneously with the review of the documentation. Probably, only a small part of the existing knowledge and experience has been arranged in written form.

Examples of thematic areas of exploratory studies in pedagogy students can refer to addiction to alcohol or other drugs, their eating habits during class time, behavior in the library area, leadership and informal organizations.

 

Descriptive studies (Level II)

Fundamentally they address the description of social or educational phenomena in a particular temporary and special circumstance. Different levels of research differ in the type of question they may ask. While in the exploratory investigations no questions are raised that lead to precise problems, but rather problematic areas are explored, in this 2nd Level the questions are guided by descriptive schemes and taxonomies; Your questions focus on the variables of the subjects or the situation.

 

Comparative causal studies (Level III)

When you want to establish cause and effect relationships or establish differences of certain variables between groups of students, the most direct path chosen by the researcher is the experimental method, controlling all the intervening variables and modifying in their way the independent variables to appreciate its possible effects on the dependent variables.

Unfortunately, the complexity of social phenomena does not always allow controlling or manipulating various variables, which can only be observed as presented, for example, the profession of the attorneys, the number of siblings, the interests of the students, etc.

Another strong limitation to experimentation in education is ethical considerations regarding the manipulation of human beings.

Consequently, the researcher meets the effects of something that is happening and from these effects, the possible causes that have already occurred are investigated. In contrast, in experimental designs, independent variables arise in the present and can be modified according to the researcher's plan; They are said to be active variables.

 

Experimental Designs (Level IV)

Experimentation is an observation provoked to achieve a certain objective, it modifies the conditions that deliberately determine a fact to record and interpret the changes that occur in the said phenomenon.

In these designs, the axis element is the approach of a causal hypothesis, which establishes relations of EFFECT CAUSE in the development of certain events. The experiment has the character of a test medium, which is planned in a deductive way to gather evidence to infer the value of the hypothesis, according to the classical model of the Scientific Method.